Animal Farm

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  • Mr. Jones - Czar Nicholas II
  • Old Major - Karl Max
  • Snowball - Trotsky
  • Napoleon - Stalin
  • Squealer - Stalin's propoganda committee
  • Dogs - KGB
  • Boxer - dedicated but tricked communist supporters
  • Moses - religion
  • Frederick - Hitler/Deutschland
  • Pilkington - FDR/Churchill/Allie Forces


  • Windmill - 5 year plans
  • Major's Skull - Lenin's body
  • Battle of the Cowshed - Russian Revolution
  • Animal Executions - Stalin's purge
  • Battle of the Windmill - WWII

Chapter 1[edit]

  1. For what purpose did Old Major call the meeting of the animals?
    • To share a dream he had.
  2. According to Major, what is the cause of all the animals' problems? Be specific.
    • Mankind; Man consumes without producing and only gives the bare minimum to prevent starving. He kills animals who are old and useless, they are selfish also. Sells the young offspring for profit. Humans don't know how to best use the land.
  3. After they vote and decide rats are comrades, Major summarizes his points for the animals to remember. What are they?
    • 2 legs - enemy
    • 4 legs or wings - friend
    • Don't resemble a man, like living in a house, sleeping on a bed, touch money, etc. (no alcohol, trade, no clothes, smoke).
    • Treat each other equally and with no tyranny.

Chapter 2[edit]

  1. Who gained leadership of the animals? Why?
    • Pigs; Most cleverest animals on the farm.
  2. What concept did the three pigs come up with?
    • Animalism
  3. How did the other animals respond to this concept? What are some of the questions the animals had for the pigs?
    • The other animals did not like it or understand because they did not think it would happen in their lifetimes. They want to know who will feed us after Mr. Jones is gone and why should we care about what happens after we die. Why should we work for it if it will happen anyways?
  4. Who is Moses? What idea does he spread around to the animals?
    • Tame Raven - Mr. Jones's pet; Religion (sugar candy mountain)
  5. What impact do Clover and Boxer have on others?
    • Persuaded other animals to believe in Animalism through simple arguments.
  6. Who gained leadership of the animals? Why?
    • Pigs; Most cleverest animals on the farm.
  7. What concept did the three pigs come up with?
    • Animalism
  8. How did the other animals respond to this concept? What are some of the questions the animals had for the pigs?
    • The other animals did not like it or understand because they did not think it would happen in their lifetimes. They want to know who will feed us after Mr. Jones is gone and why should we care about what happens after we die. Why should we work for it if it will happen anyway?
  9. Who is Moses? What idea does he spread around to the animals?
    • Tame Raven--Mr. Jones's pet; religion (sugar candy mountain)
  10. What impact do Clover and Boxer have on others?
    • Persuaded other animals to believe in Animalism through simple arguments.
  11. What events lead up to the rebellion?
    • Mr. Jones started to neglect the farm, not feeding the animals, men were idle and dishonest, fields full with weed, buildings needed roofing, hedges were neglected.
  12. What do the animals do that causes the rebellion to happen?
    • One of the cows broke into the store and the animals began to help themselves to the bins, waking Mr. Jones up.
  13. Describe the events that happen in the rebellion from beginning to end.
    • Mr. Jones wakes up. He and his men begin to lash their whips frantically.
    • The animals retaliate against the whips by jumping on them. They start to butt and kick Mr. Jones and his men. This causes Mr. Jones and men to leave the farm on foot 2 minutes later.
    • Mrs. Jones is chased by Moses.
    • Mr. Jones and his men are defeated and the Manor Farm is theirs.
  14. What are the first four things that the animals do once they win the rebellion?
    • Checked to make sure no human remains on the farm.
    • Throw out remains that was used/a sign of Mr. Jones's terror, like knives.
    • Napoleon leads the animals back to the store and gives them corn and 2 biscuits for the dogs.
    • They sing Beasts of England and then settled down and slept for the night.
  15. Where is Mollie discovered to be when the animals go through the house?
    • Mollie was behind in the best bedroom admiring herself.
  16. What have the pigs taught themselves to do? To what do they change the name of the farm to?
    • The pigs have taught themselves to read and write from a spelling book from Mr. Jones; The name was changed to Animal Farm.
  17. List the 7 commandments of Animalism
    • Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
    • Whatever goes upon four legs or has wings is a friend.
    • No animal shall wear clothes.
    • No animal shall sleep in a bed.
    • No animal shall drink alcohol.
    • No animal shall kill any other animal.
    • All animals are equal.
  18. What happens to the milk?
    • The milk disappears.

Chapter 3[edit]

  1. What is different about the harvest this year? How does this represent the true idea of Communism?
    • The harvest was a lot more successful than with Mr. Jones and his men; Production of the farm truly belongs to the animals.
  2. Describe Boxer at the beginning of the chapter. What is his motto?
    • Boxer worked even harder than he worked when he was working for Mr. Jones. He is the admiration for everybody; "I will work harder".
  3. How have the animals changed at the start of the chapter with their newly found freedom? Who hasn't changed?
    • The animals now truly love eating their food knowing that they produced it themselves without their cruel masters giving them the bare minimum. The animals work together as a team and barely argue; Mollie hasn't changed because she only cares about herself.
  4. What routine do the animal engage in on Sunday mornings? Explain the flag and its elements.
    • They don't do any work on Sunday and breakfast was an hour later than usual. A ceremony takes place after breakfast; The flag was an old green tablecloth painted with a hoof and horn. The hoof and horn signified the Republic of the Animals.
  5. What is the degree of success achieved by other animals on the farm when it comes to reading?
    • Almost every animal on the farm was literate in some degrees by the autumn as reading an writing classes which were held at the farm were a success; Mollie only knows the letters of her name, Boxer couldn't get past the letter "D", pigs knew the alphabets, dogs were behind the pigs.
  6. What maxim was created for the farm? Why?
    • The maxim that was created was "Four legs good, two legs bad" and it was created because some of the animals (sheep, hens, ducks) could not learn the 7 commandments.
  7. Where does Napoleon take Jessie and Bluebell's pups? What do you think he is doing with them?
    • Napoleon took them to a loft which could only be reached by a ladder from the Larness-room; teaching them by himself.
  8. How does Squealer explain the disappearance of the milk and the apples?
    • He explains that the pigs need the milk and apples more as they need the brian-helping nutrients from the milk and apples more than the other animals as they're the ones who rule the other animals.
  9. What is the main argument Squealer uses to ensure what he says is taken seriously by the other animals?
    • The main argument: "If the pigs fails, then Mr. Jones will be back!"

Chapter 4[edit]

  1. Contrast Mr. Pilkington to Mr. Frederick.
    • Mr. Pilkington: Represents Allied Forces, easy-going, hunted or fish by the seas, owns an unorganized farm: Foxwood.
    • Mr. Frederick: Represents Germany, tough-shrewd, involved in many lawsuits, hard bargains, owns an organized farm: Pinchfield.
  2. How do the humans respond to their own animals singing "Beasts of England"?
    • The animals are whipped on the spot if they are heard singing it.
  3. Why does no one go to help Mr. Jones reclaim his farm at the beginning of the chapter?
    • Everyone is secretly trying to figure out a way to benefit from Mr. Jones' bad situation.
  4. Who led the first counter-attack when Mr. Jones returned to the farm with other men to try to reclaim it? What influenced him to lead the counter-attack?
    • Snowball leads the counter-attack after he reads a book on Julius Cesear's military experiences.
  5. How do the animals trick Mr. Jones and the other men?
    • The animals run back into the farmyard acting as if they are retreating, but they are leading the men into an ambush.
  6. What happens to Snowball? The sheep? Mollie?
    • Mr. Jones fires his gun at Snowball, but the pellets graze his back and kill the sheep behind him. Mollie is hiding in her stall instead of fighting.
  7. How does Boxer react to the idea of killing a human?
    • Boxer is saddened at the thought of killing someone, even a human.
  8. What awards do Snowball and Boxer receive? The sheep?
    • Snowball + Boxer = "Animal Hero, First Class"
    • Dead sheep = "Animal Hero, Second Class"
  9. What do they do with Mr. Jones's gun?
    • The gun is placed at the bottom of the flagpole. It will be fired twice a year once on the anniversary of Battle of Cowshed on October 12 and Midsummer's Day for the rebellion.

Chapter 5[edit]

  1. What has Clover discovered about Mollie? What has she found in Mollie's stall?
    • Clover has found out that Mollie is interacting with the humans and Clover finds her 2 favorite things: Lump of sugar and ribbons.
  2. What happened to Mollie? How is that treated by other animals?
    • Mollie runs away to joy to another farm across town so she can have sugar, wear ribbons and be a pet; They animals never speak fo Mollie against because she betrayed them.
  3. What idea does Snowball come up with for the farm? What does he hope that it will provide for the farm? How will it make their lives better?
    • Windmill; Electricity created will power machines as well as produce light and heat for each stall; They will benefit from more comfort and less work.
  4. What is Napoleon's opinion of Snowball's plan? What does he do to show it?
    • Napoleon is not impressed by his plans; Urinates on it.
  5. During a Sunday meeting, the animals are trying to decide whether or not to go ahead and build the windmill. What is Snowball's argument? Napoleon's?
    • Snowball claims it will lower their work week to 3 days a week.
    • Napoleon believes its nonsense.
  6. What happens when the animals decide to go with Snowball's plan?
    • Napoleon has the dogs, KGB, run Snowball off the farm.
  7. What is the first decision that Napoleon makes now that he is in charge?
    • He abolishes the Sunday morning meetings.
  8. How will decisions be made on the farm?
    • By a special committee of pigs presided over by Napoleon himself.
  9. What new step has been added to the Sunday morning processional?
    • Animals must walk past the skull of Old Major that has been dug up and placed at the bottom of the flagpole next to Mr. Jones's gun.
  10. How has the seating arrangement changed during the meetings?
    • Napoleon, Squealer, and a pig named Minimus sat together on the raised platform like Old Major used to do. The dogs sit in front of the three of them and the rest of the pigs are on the back end of the platform. The separation of the pigs and dogs is indicating that their perceived superiority to the other animals.
  11. How does Napoleon use the sheep to help quiet arguments that oppose his plans?
    • The sheep yell repeatedly, "4 legs good, 2 legs bad", over-top of anyone trying to rebel.
  12. What does Napoleon decide to do after all? How does Squealer convince the animals that Napoleon supported the plan all along?
    • Napoleon decides to build the windmill; He tells that it was Napoleon's idea all along and the growling of the dogs keeps the animals from denying the idea.

Chapter 6[edit]

  1. Reread the opening sentence of this chapter. What do you notice is significant in the diction?
    • The animals are working like slaves... this is the same way they were treated with Mr. Jones.
  2. What changes does Napoleon make to the work week?
    • They work 60 hours a week (10 hours a day) - now work on Sundays (they say it is voluntary, but if an animal does not work on Sundays, his/her food will be cut in half).
  3. What items become scarce that the farm cannot produce? How does Napoleon decide they will overcome these hardships?
    • Nails, iron for horseshoes, paraffin oil, dog biscuits, machinery for the windmill, string, seeds, artificial manures; Trade with neighboring farms through a lawyer.
  4. What is ironic about the name of the solicitor Napoleon works with?
    • Mr. Whymper; They don't expect him to work but they expect him to be sneaky.
  5. How do the animals feel about engaging in trade and using money with humans? How does Squealer convince them it is okay?
    • The animals don't like engaging in trade/using money with humans. They recall a resolution against it from the 1st meeting after the rebellion; the animal's disagreement is not written down anymore, so there is no such thing as their disagreement existing.
  6. What is the opinion of the town's people of Animal Farm and Mr. Jones?
    • Animal Farm - They hate the farm more than ever because it is successful, though they have respect for it by calling it Animal Farm.
    • Mr. Jones - Given up on him because he can't do it.
  7. Where have the pigs moved? How does Squealer explain this move to the animals?
    • Farmhouse; brains of farm need quiet places to work.
  8. What do the other animals discover about the pigs now living in the house?
    • They are sleeping on the beds.
  9. Clover asked Muriel to read her the fourth commandment on the barn wall -- what is different about this?
    • She adds "with sheets"... Squealer has added this new modification to the commandment.
  10. How does Squealer once again manage to convince the animals about sleeping in the beds?
    • Bed: place to sleep, sheets are the human invention which is bad.
  11. What happens one night during a storm?
    • Windmill is destroyed.
  12. Who does Napoleon blame for this? What does he offer as a reward for his capture? What do the animals find when they are looking around the farm?
    • Snowball; a full bushel of apples and "Animal Hero, Second Class"; Footprints of a pig in the grass close to the knoll---Napoleon pronounced these footprints to be Snowball who probably came from Foxwood.

Chapter 7[edit]

  1. Based on the first two pages of the chapter, what is the animals' main concern?
    • Food supply while rebuilding the windmill.
  2. How does Napoleon try to fool Mr. Whymper?
    • Napoleon orders the mostly empty food bin to be filled with sand to the brim, then the remaining food placed on top, giving Mr. Whymper the allusion that all is fine on the farm.
  3. What is the agreement Napoleon makes with Mr. Whymper?
    • They will sell 400 eggs a week to a local grocer in order to buy more grain.
  4. Describe the reaction of the hens and how they try to get Napoleon to reconsider. What happens?
    • In protest to disliking it, they fig into rafters and lay their eggs, consequently, the eggs fall to the ground and break. Napoleon, angry, starves the 9 hens in 5 days.
  5. Why does Napoleon use Snowball in regards to selling the timber?
    • Napoleon says the different forms are hiding Snowball as a way o justify on-going negotiations in price.
  6. Explain the use of Snowball as a scapegoat on the farm.
    • Scapegoat - Someone who is blamed for something that he/she has not done. Snowball is blamed whenever something goes wrong.
  7. How does Squealer manage to change the animals' memories of Snowball during the battles and his true allegiance?
    • Through persuasive paragraphs of explanations (he explains that Snowball left the Battle of Cowshed at the critical moment, and not as a battle move; Snowball's bleeding was fake and it was just a coverup as Mr. Jone's agent)--he also uses Napoleon as an excuse (Napoleon said it himself!)--Professing that Napoleon is the one who did Snowball's actions in the battle.
  8. What happens to the animals who "confess" to being in league with Snowball or commit crimes in the eyes of the other animals?
    • They were killed right on the stop by the dogs.
  9. How has the animals' idea and realization of Animal Farm changed from the start of the book?
    • The Dream of Animal Farm - No hunger/whip no longer used, equal, everyone working to their best, strong protecting the weak.
    • Reality of Animal Farm - Growling and threatening dogs, animals being killed, Napoleon owns absolute monarchy for the farm.
  10. What have the pigs changed at the end of the chapter? What might this signify to the animals?
    • "Beasts of England" is forbidden because it is no longer needed since the rebellion is over and has already taken place; Gives them a sense of hopelessness, shows Napoleon is the absolute ruler of the farm.

Chapter 8[edit]

  1. By the end of the chapter, which two commandments have been altered? What do they now say? Why has each of them been changed?
    • No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.
    • No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.
    • To justify their actions
  2. What is Napoleon's new title? How has treatment of him changed in the first few pages?
    • "Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon"; He is rarely seen more often than once every 2 weeks... when he goes to places, a black roaster walks in front of him crowing. He now eats and sleeps alone away from the pigs.
  3. Explain why the animals do not like Frederick.
    • Because he treats his animals with cruelty and they want to liberate his farm.
  1. How does Napoleon double cross Pilkington?
    • Napoleon acts like he will sell the wood to Pilkington, but instead, he sells it to Frederick.
  2. How is Napoleon double-crossed by Frederick? When Napoleon solicits Pilkington for help, what is the response he receives?
    • Napoleon is given fake money by Frederick in exchange for the timber. When Frederick and his men attack Animal Farm, he asks Pilkington for help in which he receives the response, "serves you right".
  3. What events occur during the Battle of the Windmill?
    • The men attack the animals with guns while they're preparing the windmill. They blow up the windmill with dynamite which causes the animals to attack wildly. The men run out and the animals win.
  4. How do the pigs manage to turn the misfortune into a victory? What does Napoleon reward himself with?
    • The victory was protecting the farm from Frederick's attack; his award: The Order of the Green Banner.
  5. To what realization does Boxer arrive about himself?
    • He's not as strong and tough as he used to be, he is now 11... it will be harder to build the windmill.
  6. Explain what happens when the pigs find the whiskey in the basement.
    • They drank it all before Napoleon bans alcohol.
  7. What occurs at the end of the chapter that only Benjamin fully understands?
    • In the middle of the night, the animals hear a loud sound. They discover Squealer, a broken ladder and a paintbrush. Only Benjamin understands that Squealer has been changing the commandments.
1. "No animal shall drink alcohol TO EXCESS" - This allows them to make alcohol!

Chapter 9[edit]

  1. Why are the animals so easily convinced that their situation is better than when Jones was around when it really isn't?
    • Squealer provides "arguments" for this, like "more oats, more hay, etc.", worked shorter hours, better water lived longer, more infants surviving and fewer fleas. They, according to Squealer, were also "free". This is easily accepted because no one remembers how life was like before the freedom from Mr. Jones. They also believe that now the animals are finally controlling the farm.
  2. Once the piglets are born, how do the pigs further separate themselves from the other animals?
    • The piglets were turned over to be taught by Napoleon himself. Also, several rules were created, such as the piglets are discouraged from playing with the other animals, other animals have to step aside when pigs pass by, pigs have to wear special green ribbons on Sunday and all the barely on the farm were to be left for the pigs.
  3. What is the purpose of the "Spontaneous Demonstrations"?
    • To celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm, truth: Glorify Napoleon and distract them from their hardships.
  4. How does the farm change once it becomes the month of April?
    • The farm is now a Republic and Napoleon is the president of it.
  5. Why has Moses suddenly appeared? Why do the pigs allow him to stay on the farm?
    • To tell the animals that behind a dark cloud is Sugar Candy Mountain; They allow him on the farm as long as Moses gives a gill of beer a day.
  6. Give the chain of events from Boxer's injury to his leaving Animal Farm.
    • Boxer's hoof is injured during the Battle of the Windmill, so after his lungs give out and he collapses while working, Boxer receives medicine from Clover for the next two days until he was taken away to his death (a "hospital" in Willingdon in care of humans).
  7. How does Squealer continue to lie to the animals about the reality of Boxer's death?
    • He says that Boxer was taken to the hospital. The van Boxer was taken in was previously the property of the knacker.
  8. What occurs at the end of the chapter which demonstrates the real reason for Boxer's death?
    • Reason for Boxer's death was to sell him to a knacker in order to make money to buy whiskey.

Chapter 10[edit]

  1. In the first three paragraphs of the chapter, how are the farm and animals different?
    • Benjamin: Sad and grumpy
    • Squealer: Fat
    • Napoleon: Fat
    • No one remembers Snowball, Boxer.
    • Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher are dead.
    • Clover: Old/2 years past retirement.
    • More creatures on the farm.
    • Rebellion is pretty much forgotten and the windmill is used for coal and harvesting.
  2. According to Napoleon, what is the animals' truest happiness?
    • Working hard and living frugally.
  3. In relation to work, how have the pigs and dogs come to resemble the humans at the start of the chapter?
    • Pigs and dogs are starting to consume large amounts of food without producing.
  4. Where has Squealer taken the sheep? What is the new maxim?
    • Another side of the farm; "Four legs good, 2 legs better".
  5. What events have startled first Colver, then the other animals?.
    • The pigs walked on their hind legs (walking on two legs).
  6. What item does Napoleon possess now?
    • A whip.
  7. What has happened to the commandments at the end of the barn?
    • They covered the other commandments with tar and is replaced with "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others". Why?: To justify all their actions.
  8. Why does Benjamin break his rule to never read the commandments?
    • They, him and Clover, are pretty much the only animals alive from the start of the novels and he doesn't want the truth to be kept from her now that the pigs walk on 2 legs.
  9. What behaviors of the pigs have the other animals accepted without question because of the new commandment?
    • They started to wear the Jones's family clothes.
    • Pigs carrying whips.
    • Napoleon is smoking pipe.
    • Bought themselves a radio.
    • Newspapers (Daily Mirror).
  10. What sight do the animals see through the dining room window?
    • Animals signing at a table playing cards and drinking.
  11. Summarize Pilkington's toast.
    • Order of the farm and the organization of it through fear and whips. The farm is also productive.
  12. What changes has Napoleon told the humans he is making to the farm?
    • Manor Farm as the new name.
    • No more "comrade".
    • No more walking past a boar's skull; because it reflects Animalism and the rebellion.
    • Changes flag to plain green flag.
    • Basically, Napoleon is becoming Mr. Jones.
  13. Look at the last incident of the story in the last two paragraphs. Explain what happens and in your own words explain the last paragraph.
    • Mr. Pilkington and Napoleon both play the ace of spades showing they're both cheaters. They're both cheaters and can't be trusted, which is why the animals couldn't tell the difference between the animals an humans. They are similar.

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